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Oral cholera vaccination coverage after the first global stockpile deployment in Haiti, 2014.

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Oral cholera vaccination coverage after the first global stockpile deployment in Haiti, 2014.

Vaccine. 2019 Sep 11;:

Authors: Burnett EM, Francois J, Sreenivasan N, Wannemuehler K, Faye PC, Tohme RA, Delly P, Deslouches YG, Etheart MD, Dismer AM, Patel R, Date K

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: In 2014, an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaign targeting 185,314 persons aged ≥1 years was conducted in 3 departments via fixed post and door-to-door strategies. This was the first use of the global OCV stockpile in Haiti.
METHODS: We conducted a multi-stage cluster survey to assess departmental OCV coverage. Target population estimates were projected from the 2003 Haiti population census with adjustments for population growth and estimated proportion of pregnant women. In the three departments, we sampled 30/106 enumeration areas (EAs) in Artibonite, 30/244 EAs in Centre, and 20/29 EAs in Ouest; 20 households were systematically sampled in each EA. Household and individual interviews using a standard questionnaire were conducted in each selected household; data on OCV receipt were obtained from vaccination card or verbal report. We calculated OCV campaign coverage estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) accounting for survey design.
RESULTS: Overall two-dose OCV coverage was 70% (95% CI: 60, 79), 63% (95% CI: 55, 71), and 44% (95% CI: 35, 53) in Artibonite, Centre, and Ouest, respectively. Two-dose coverage was higher in the 1-4 years age group than among those ≥ 15 years in Artibonite (difference: 11%; 95% CI: 5%, 17%) and Ouest (difference: 12%; 95% CI: 3, 20). A higher percentage of children aged 5-14 years received both recommended doses than did those ≥ 15 years (Artibonite: 14% (95% CI: 8%, 19%) difference; Centre: 11% difference (95% CI: 5%, 17%); Ouest: 10% difference (95% CI: 2%, 17%). The most common reason for not receiving any OCV dose was being absent during the campaign or not having heard about vaccination activities.
CONCLUSIONS: While coverage estimates in Artibonite and Centre were comparable with other OCV campaigns in Haiti and elsewhere, inadequate social mobilization and outdated population estimates might have contributed to lower coverage in Ouest.

PMID: 31521413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Descriptive epidemiology of cholera outbreak in Nigeria, January-November, 2018: implications for the global roadmap strategy.

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Descriptive epidemiology of cholera outbreak in Nigeria, January-November, 2018: implications for the global roadmap strategy.

BMC Public Health. 2019 Sep 13;19(1):1264

Authors: Elimian KO, Musah A, Mezue S, Oyebanji O, Yennan S, Jinadu A, Williams N, Ogunleye A, Fall IS, Yao M, Eteng WE, Abok P, Popoola M, Chukwuji M, Omar LH, Ekeng E, Balde T, Mamadu I, Adeyemo A, Namara G, Okudo I, Alemu W, Peter C, Ihekweazu C

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The cholera outbreak in 2018 in Nigeria reaffirms its public health threat to the country. Evidence on the current epidemiology of cholera required for the design and implementation of appropriate interventions towards attaining the global roadmap strategic goals for cholera elimination however seems lacking. Thus, this study aimed at addressing this gap by describing the epidemiology of the 2018 cholera outbreak in Nigeria.
METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of surveillance data collected between January 1st and November 19th, 2018. A cholera case was defined as an individual aged 2 years or older presenting with acute watery diarrhoea and severe dehydration or dying from acute watery diarrhoea. Descriptive analyses were performed and presented with respect to person, time and place using appropriate statistics.
RESULTS: There were 43,996 cholera cases and 836 cholera deaths across 20 states in Nigeria during the outbreak period, with an attack rate (AR) of 127.43/100,000 population and a case fatality rate (CFR) of 1.90%. Individuals aged 15 years or older (47.76%) were the most affected age group, but the proportion of affected males and females was about the same (49.00 and 51.00% respectively). The outbreak was characterised by four distinct epidemic waves, with higher number of deaths recorded in the third and fourth waves. States from the north-west and north-east regions of the country recorded the highest ARs while those from the north-central recorded the highest CFRs.
CONCLUSION: The severity and wide-geographical distribution of cholera cases and deaths during the 2018 outbreak are indicative of an elevated burden, which was more notable in the northern region of the country. Overall, the findings reaffirm the strategic role of a multi-sectoral approach in the design and implementation of public health interventions aimed at preventing and controlling cholera in Nigeria.

PMID: 31519163 [PubMed - in process]

Changing epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in Vibrio cholerae: AMR surveillance findings (2006-2016) from Nepal.

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Changing epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in Vibrio cholerae: AMR surveillance findings (2006-2016) from Nepal.

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 11;19(1):801

Authors: Rijal N, Acharya J, Adhikari S, Upadhaya BP, Shakya G, Kansakar P, Rajbhandari P

Abstract
BACKGROUND: In Nepal, cases of Cholera occur annually either as sporadic or as outbreaks claiming the lives of many in rural areas. The present study is a laboratory based surveillance which aims to analyze the changing epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility trend of V. cholerae strains isolated or referred to National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) over a period of 11 years (2006-2016).
METHODS: Specimens of fresh stool /rectal swab either received at sentinel sites or NPHL were processed following standard microbiological techniques. Suspected colonies on selective medium were identified using routine biochemical tests and confirmed by serotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed following Kirby Baeur disc diffusion method.
RESULTS: Of the 836 confirmed isolates, 87% (728/836) were V.cholerae O1 Ogawa,12% (103/836) were V.cholerae O1 Inaba and only 6 isolates were V.cholerae O1 Hikojima. In 2006 all the Vibrio isolates were of Inaba serotype, followed by all 3 serotypes during 2007.During 2008-2014 only Ogawa serotype was isolated while few cases of Inaba again surfaced in 2015. Resistance to ampicillin decreased from 93% in 2006 to 18% by 2010 and again raised to 100% by 2016.Cotrimoxazole resistance remained at constant range (77-100%).Nalidixic acid resistance was 100% since 2006.Ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance emerged in 2007, reached a peak during 2010-2012 and declined to 0 by 2016.Susceptibility to Furazolidone has re-emerged.63.6% of the isolates were Multi drug resistant.
CONCLUSION: With changing epidemiology and antibiogram of V.cholerae in Nepal, the present study reflects the importance of continuous monitoring, which could be used by policy makers and health professionals for better management of outbreaks. Decline in tetracycline and ciprofloxacin resistance along with emerging sensitivity to furazolidone shows that these drugs could make an effective comeback in future.

PMID: 31510925 [PubMed - in process]

Expanding dynamics of the virulence-related gene variations in the toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1.

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Expanding dynamics of the virulence-related gene variations in the toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1.

BMC Genomics. 2019 May 09;20(1):360

Authors: Li Z, Pang B, Wang D, Li J, Xu J, Fang Y, Lu X, Kan B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 is the causative pathogen in the sixth and seventh cholera pandemics. Cholera toxin is the major virulent factor but other virulence and virulence-related factors play certain roles in the pathogenesis and survival in the host. Along with the evolution of the epidemic strains, the virulence-related genes also experience variation, gain and loss, and lead to genetic divergence in different strains.
RESULTS: In this study, we analyzed the virulence-related gene profiles in the toxigenic serogroup O1 strains isolated from 1923 to 2015, the genomes of which were publicly available. The virulence-related genes of the V. cholerae O1 strains were annotated based on the Virulence Factors Database (VFDB). An average of 230.1 virulence-related genes per strain were identified; significant differences in the average numbers were found between the classical and El Tor biotypes, and increasing trends in the number of virulence-related genes along with the isolation years were observed in the El Tor biotype strains. A total of 176 homologs of virulence-related genes were found from these strains, of which 25 belonged to the core genes, suggesting their conservative and necessary roles in V. cholerae pathogenesis. We described the diversities of the homologs by defining gene sequence type, and illustrated its association with gene duplication; we found that gene duplication clearly increased the complexity of the gene sequence types in the core virulence-related genes. In addition, we provided virulence-related gene profiles whose genetic characteristic depend on the isolation years from the view of gene gain and loss, variation, gene duplication and gene sequence type number.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals the comprehensive variation dynamics of the virulence-related genes in toxigenic V. cholerae serogroup O1 during epidemics. The increasing trend for the virulence-related genes may suggest the evolutional advantage of strains by gaining virulence-related genes with diverse functional categories.

PMID: 31072300 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Human Gut Microbiota Predicts Susceptibility to Vibrio cholerae Infection.

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Human Gut Microbiota Predicts Susceptibility to Vibrio cholerae Infection.

J Infect Dis. 2018 07 13;218(4):645-653

Authors: Midani FS, Weil AA, Chowdhury F, Begum YA, Khan AI, Debela MD, Durand HK, Reese AT, Nimmagadda SN, Silverman JD, Ellis CN, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB, Harris JB, Qadri F, David LA, LaRocque RC

Abstract
Background: Cholera is a public health problem worldwide, and the risk factors for infection are only partially understood.
Methods: We prospectively studied household contacts of patients with cholera to compare those who were infected to those who were not. We constructed predictive machine learning models of susceptibility, using baseline gut microbiota data. We identified bacterial taxa associated with susceptibility to Vibrio cholerae infection and tested these taxa for interactions with V. cholerae in vitro.
Results: We found that machine learning models based on gut microbiota, as well as models based on known clinical and epidemiological risk factors, predicted V. cholerae infection. A predictive gut microbiota of roughly 100 bacterial taxa discriminated between contacts who developed infection and those who did not. Susceptibility to cholera was associated with depleted levels of microbes from the phylum Bacteroidetes. By contrast, a microbe associated with cholera by our modeling framework, Paracoccus aminovorans, promoted the in vitro growth of V. cholerae. Gut microbiota structure, clinical outcome, and age were also linked.
Conclusion: These findings support the hypothesis that abnormal gut microbial communities are a host factor related to V. cholerae susceptibility.

PMID: 29659916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Corrigendum: Revisiting the Global Epidemiology of Cholera in Conjunction With the Genomics of Vibrio cholerae.

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Corrigendum: Revisiting the Global Epidemiology of Cholera in Conjunction With the Genomics of Vibrio cholerae.

Front Public Health. 2019;7:237

Authors: Ramamurthy T, Mutreja A, Weill FX, Das B, Ghosh A, Nair GB

Abstract
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00203.].

PMID: 31497590 [PubMed - in process]

Long-Term Gastrointestinal Consequences are Frequent Following Sporadic Acute Infectious Diarrhea in a Tropical Country: A Prospective Cohort Study.

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Long-Term Gastrointestinal Consequences are Frequent Following Sporadic Acute Infectious Diarrhea in a Tropical Country: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Am J Gastroenterol. 2018 09;113(9):1363-1375

Authors: Rahman MM, Ghoshal UC, Sultana S, Kibria MG, Sultana N, Khan ZA, Ahmed F, Hasan M, Ahmed T, Sarker SA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) and functional dyspepsia (PI-FD), though reported from the temperate countries, have not been studied in the tropics; PI-malabsorption syndrome (MAS), which mimics PI-IBS, is reported from the tropics. No report till date on PI-IBS excluded PI-MAS. We studied: (i) the frequency of continuing bowel dysfunction after acute gastroenteritis (AG), (ii) its predictors, and (iii) PI-MAS among patients with PI-IBS.
METHODS: 345 consecutive subjects each, with AG and age- and gender-matched healthy controls were followed up 3-monthly for 12 months using a translated-validated questionnaire and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) were diagnosed by Rome III criteria. Symptom duration >3 months but <6 months was diagnosed as chronic bowel dysfunction (CBD) and dyspeptic symptoms, respectively. MAS was diagnosed if 2/3 tests (D-xylose H2 breath test, Sudan III-stained stool microscopy, and duodenal histology) were abnormal. Fecal microbiological studies were performed in 245/345 (71%) patients.
RESULTS: AG patients more often developed PI-IBS and PI-FD than controls (16.5 vs. 2.6% and 7.4 vs. 0.6%, respectively; p<0.001). Presence of FD was a risk factor for PI-IBS and IBS for PI-FD. On multivariate analysis, dyspeptic symptoms, CBD, and weight loss were the risk factors for PI-FGIDs. The frequency of PI-IBS following Vibrio cholera and other bacterial infection was comparable. Malabsorption was present among 2/23 (9%) patients with PI-IBS.
CONCLUSION: FGIDs are common after AG; dyspeptic symptoms, CBD, and weight loss were risk factors for PI-FGIDs. Vibrio cholerae infection caused PI-FGID, which was never reported. About 9 % patients fulfilling the criteria for PI-IBS had PI-MAS.

PMID: 30171215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluation of Whole-Genome Sequencing for Identification and Typing of Vibrio cholerae.

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Evaluation of Whole-Genome Sequencing for Identification and Typing of Vibrio cholerae.

J Clin Microbiol. 2018 11;56(11):

Authors: Greig DR, Schaefer U, Octavia S, Hunter E, Chattaway MA, Dallman TJ, Jenkins C

Abstract
Epidemiological and microbiological data on Vibrio cholerae strains isolated between April 2004 and March 2018 (n = 836) and held at the Public Health England culture archive were reviewed. The traditional biochemical species identification and serological typing results were compared with the genome-derived species identification and serotype for a subset of isolates (n = 152). Of the 836 isolates, 750 (89.7%) were from a fecal specimen, 206 (24.6%) belonged to serogroup O1, and 7 (0.8%) were serogroup O139; 792 (94.7%) isolates were from patients reporting recent travel abroad, most commonly to India (n = 209) and Pakistan (n = 104). Of the 152 V. cholerae isolates identified by use of kmer, 149 (98.1%) were concordant with those identified using the traditional biochemical approach. Traditional serotyping results were 100% concordant with those of the whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis for the identification of serogroups O1 and O139 and classical and El Tor biotypes. ctxA was detected in all isolates of V. cholerae O1 El Tor and O139 belonging to sequence type 69 (ST69) and in V. cholerae O1 classical variants belonging to ST73. A phylogeny of isolates belonging to ST69 from U.K. travelers clustered geographically, with isolates from India and Pakistan located on separate branches. Moving forward, WGS data from U.K. travelers will contribute to global surveillance programs and the monitoring of emerging threats to public health and the global dissemination of pathogenic lineages. At the national level, these WGS data will inform the timely reinforcement of direct public health messaging to travelers and mitigate the impact of imported infections and the associated risks to public health.

PMID: 30135231 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Probability of major depression diagnostic classification using semi-structured versus fully structured diagnostic interviews.

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Probability of major depression diagnostic classification using semi-structured versus fully structured diagnostic interviews.

Br J Psychiatry. 2018 06;212(6):377-385

Authors: Levis B, Benedetti A, Riehm KE, Saadat N, Levis AW, Azar M, Rice DB, Chiovitti MJ, Sanchez TA, Cuijpers P, Gilbody S, Ioannidis JPA, Kloda LA, McMillan D, Patten SB, Shrier I, Steele RJ, Ziegelstein RC, Akena DH, Arroll B, Ayalon L, Baradaran HR, Baron M, Beraldi A, Bombardier CH, Butterworth P, Carter G, Chagas MH, Chan JCN, Cholera R, Chowdhary N, Clover K, Conwell Y, de Man-van Ginkel JM, Delgadillo J, Fann JR, Fischer FH, Fischler B, Fung D, Gelaye B, Goodyear-Smith F, Greeno CG, Hall BJ, Hambridge J, Harrison PA, Hegerl U, Hides L, Hobfoll SE, Hudson M, Hyphantis T, Inagaki M, Ismail K, Jetté N, Khamseh ME, Kiely KM, Lamers F, Liu SI, Lotrakul M, Loureiro SR, Löwe B, Marsh L, McGuire A, Mohd Sidik S, Munhoz TN, Muramatsu K, Osório FL, Patel V, Pence BW, Persoons P, Picardi A, Rooney AG, Santos IS, Shaaban J, Sidebottom A, Simning A, Stafford L, Sung S, Tan PLL, Turner A, van der Feltz-Cornelis CM, van Weert HC, Vöhringer PA, White J, Whooley MA, Winkley K, Yamada M, Zhang Y, Thombs BD

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.AimsTo evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
METHOD: Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
RESULTS: A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15-3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98-10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7-15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56-1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26-0.97).
CONCLUSIONS: The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.Declaration of interestDrs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

PMID: 29717691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Rapid Forecasting of Cholera Risk in Mozambique: Translational Challenges and Opportunities.

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Rapid Forecasting of Cholera Risk in Mozambique: Translational Challenges and Opportunities.

Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019 Sep 03;:1-6

Authors: Kahn R, Mahmud AS, Schroeder A, Aguilar Ramirez LH, Crowley J, Chan J, Buckee CO

Abstract
Disasters, such as cyclones, create conditions that increase the risk of infectious disease outbreaks. Epidemic forecasts can be valuable for targeting highest risk populations before an outbreak. The two main barriers to routine use of real-time forecasts include scientific and operational challenges. First, accuracy may be limited by availability of data and the uncertainty associated with the inherently stochastic processes that determine when and where outbreaks happen and spread. Second, even if data are available, the appropriate channels of communication may prevent their use for decision making.In April 2019, only six weeks after Cyclone Idai devastated Mozambique's central region and sparked a cholera outbreak, Cyclone Kenneth severely damaged northern areas of the country. By June 10, a total of 267 cases of cholera were confirmed, sparking a vaccination campaign. Prior to Kenneth's landfall, a team of academic researchers, humanitarian responders, and health agencies developed a simple model to forecast areas at highest risk of a cholera outbreak. The model created risk indices for each district using combinations of four metrics: (1) flooding data; (2) previous annual cholera incidence; (3) sensitivity of previous outbreaks to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle; and (4) a diffusion (gravity) model to simulate movement of infected travelers. As information on cases became available, the risk model was continuously updated. A web-based tool was produced, which identified highest risk populations prior to the cyclone and the districts at-risk following the start of the outbreak.The model prior to Kenneth's arrival using the metrics of previous incidence, projected flood, and El Niño sensitivity accurately predicted areas at highest risk for cholera. Despite this success, not all data were available at the scale at which the vaccination campaign took place, limiting the model's utility, and the extent to which the forecasts were used remains unclear. Here, the science behind these forecasts and the organizational structure of this collaborative effort are discussed. The barriers to the routine use of forecasts in crisis settings are highlighted, as well as the potential for flexible teams to rapidly produce actionable insights for decision making using simple modeling tools, both before and during an outbreak.

PMID: 31477186 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A descriptive analysis of the Spatio-temporal distribution of intestinal infectious diseases in China.

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A descriptive analysis of the Spatio-temporal distribution of intestinal infectious diseases in China.

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 02;19(1):766

Authors: Mao Y, Zhang N, Zhu B, Liu J, He R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Intestinal infectious diseases (IIDs) have caused numerous deaths worldwide, particularly among children. In China, eight IIDs are listed as notifiable infectious diseases, including cholera, poliomyelitis, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid (TAP), viral Hepatitis A, viral Hepatitis E, hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and other infectious diarrhoeal diseases (OIDDs). The aim of the study is to analyse the spatio-temporal distribution of IIDs from 2006 to 2016.
METHODS: Data on the incidence of IIDs from 2006 to 2016 were collected from the public health science data centre issued by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. This study applied seasonal decomposition analysis, spatial autocorrelation analysis and space-time scan analysis. Plots and maps were constructed to visualize the spatio-temporal distribution of IIDs.
RESULTS: Regarding temporal analysis, the incidence of HFMD and Hepatitis E showed a distinct increasing trend, while the incidence of TAP, dysentery, and Hepatitis A presented decreasing trends over the last decade. The incidence of OIID remained steady. Summer is the season with the greatest number of cases of different IIDs. Regarding the spatial distribution, approximately all p values for the global Moran's I from 2006 to 2016 were less than 0.05, indicating that the incidences of the epidemics were unevenly distributed throughout the country. The high-risk areas for HFMD and OIDD were located in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan (BTT) region and south China. The high-risk areas for TAP were located in some parts of southwest China. A higher incidence rates for dysentery and Hepatitis A were observed in the BTT region and some west provincial units. The high-risk areas for Hepatitis E were the BTT region and the Yangtze River Delta area.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our temporal and spatial analysis of IIDs, we identified the high-risk periods and clusters of regions for the diseases. HFMD and OIDD exhibited high incidence rates, which reflected the negligence of Class C diseases by the government. At the same time, the incidence rate of Hepatitis E gradually surpassed Hepatitis A. The authorities should pay more attention to Class C diseases and Hepatitis E. Regardless of the various distribution patterns of IIDs, disease-specific, location-specific, and disease-combined interventions should be established.

PMID: 31477044 [PubMed - in process]

Metagenomic Profiling of Microbial Pathogens in the Little Bighorn River, Montana.

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Metagenomic Profiling of Microbial Pathogens in the Little Bighorn River, Montana.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 03 27;16(7):

Authors: Hamner S, Brown BL, Hasan NA, Franklin MJ, Doyle J, Eggers MJ, Colwell RR, Ford TE

Abstract
The Little Bighorn River is the primary source of water for water treatment plants serving the local Crow Agency population, and has special significance in the spiritual and ceremonial life of the Crow tribe. Unfortunately, the watershed suffers from impaired water quality, with high counts of fecal coliform bacteria routinely measured during run-off events. A metagenomic analysis was carried out to identify potential pathogens in the river water. The Oxford Nanopore MinION platform was used to sequence DNA in near real time to identify both uncultured and a coliform-enriched culture of microbes collected from a popular summer swimming area of the Little Bighorn River. Sequences were analyzed using CosmosID bioinformatics and, in agreement with previous studies, enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and other E. coli pathotypes were identified. Noteworthy was detection and identification of enteroaggregative E. coli O104:H4 and Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 El Tor, however, cholera toxin genes were not identified. Other pathogenic microbes, as well as virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance markers, were also identified and characterized by metagenomic analyses. It is concluded that metagenomics provides a useful and potentially routine tool for identifying in an in-depth manner microbial contamination of waterways and, thereby, protecting public health.

PMID: 30934749 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Organization and implementation of an oral cholera vaccination campaign in an endemic urban setting in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

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Organization and implementation of an oral cholera vaccination campaign in an endemic urban setting in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Glob Health Action. 2019;12(1):1574544

Authors: Khan IA, Khan AI, Rahman A, Siddique SA, Islam MT, Bhuiyan MAI, Chowdhury AI, Saha NC, Biswas PK, Saha A, Chowdhury F, Clemens JD, Qadri F

Abstract
Bangladesh has historically been cholera endemic, with seasonal cholera outbreaks occurring each year. In collaboration with the government of Bangladesh, the Infectious Diseases Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) initiated operational research to test strategies to reach the high-risk urban population with an affordable oral cholera vaccine (OCV) "ShancholTM" and examine its effectiveness in reducing diarrhea due to cholera. Here we report a sub-analysis focusing on the organization, implementation and effectiveness of different oral cholera vaccine delivery strategies in the endemic urban setting in Bangladesh. We described how the vaccination program was planned, prepared and implemented using different strategies to deliver oral cholera vaccine to a high-risk urban population in Dhaka, Bangladesh based on administrative data and observations made during the program. The objective of this study is to evaluate the organization, implementation and effectiveness of different oral cholera vaccine delivery strategies in the endemic urban setting in Bangladesh. OCV administration by trained local volunteers through outreach sites and mop-up activities yielded high coverage of 82% and 72% of 172,754 targeted individuals for the first and second dose respectively, using national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) campaign mechanisms without disrupting routine immunization activities. The cost of delivery was low. Safety and cold chain requirements were adequately managed. The adopted strategies were technically and programmatically feasible. Current evidence on implementation strategies in different settings together with available OCV stockpiles should encourage at-risk countries to use OCV along with other preventive and control measures.

PMID: 30764750 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Typhoid Fever in Chile 1969-2012: Analysis of an Epidemic and Its Control.

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Typhoid Fever in Chile 1969-2012: Analysis of an Epidemic and Its Control.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 09;99(3_Suppl):26-33

Authors: Marco C, Delgado I, Vargas C, Muñoz X, Bhutta ZA, Ferreccio C

Abstract
From 1975 to 1983, a large epidemic of typhoid fever (TF) affected the metropolitan region (MR) of Chile (incidence rate [IR] of 219.6 per 105 in 1983). In 1983-1984, interventions were implemented focusing on person-to-person transmission (vaccination, food handlers' control, and mass communication) and regulations to control irrigation waters containing fecal contaminates. In 1991, a second intervention was quickly implemented to avoid the cholera epidemic affecting neighboring countries (total prohibition of growing or selling crops in the MR). We explored the potential impact of these interventions on the epidemic. We created a yearly database of the MR TF cases, population, and contextual factors of TF from 1969 to 2012. We first analyzed the epidemic (Joinpoint regression), identified predictors of TF (Poisson multiple regression), and then analyzed the effect of the interventions (interrupted time series model). The main predictor of the TF epidemic was the rate of unemployment. In relation to the 1983-1984 person-to-person interventions, TF came down by 51% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.2-65.0%) and continued to decrease at a rate of 10.4% (95% CI: 5.8-15.6%) per year until 1991. In 1991, with the strong environmental control of the sewage-irrigated crops, TF further decreased by 77% (95% CI: 69.0-83.1%) and continued decreasing thereafter at 13% (95% CI: 11.3-15.6%) per year until the end of the study period. Today, 40 years after the epidemic, TF is a rare disease in the MR of Chile.

PMID: 30047371 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Vibrio spp. infections.

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Vibrio spp. infections.

Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018 07 12;4(1):7

Authors:

PMID: 30002373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Comparative Genomic Analysis of the 2016 Vibrio cholerae Outbreak in South Korea.

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Comparative Genomic Analysis of the 2016 Vibrio cholerae Outbreak in South Korea.

Front Public Health. 2019;7:228

Authors: Ha SM, Chalita M, Yang SJ, Yoon SH, Cho K, Seong WK, Hong S, Kim J, Kwak HS, Chun J

Abstract
In August 2016, South Korea experienced a cholera outbreak that caused acute watery diarrhea in three patients. This outbreak was the first time in 15 years that an outbreak was not linked to an overseas source. To identify the cause and to study the epidemiological implications of this outbreak, we sequenced the whole genome of Vibrio cholerae isolates; three from each patient and one from a seawater sample. Herein we present comparative genomic data which reveals that the genome sequences of these four isolates are very similar. Interestingly, these isolates form a monophyletic clade with V. cholerae strains that caused an outbreak in the Philippines in 2011. The V. cholerae strains responsible for the Korean and Philippines outbreaks have almost identical genomes in which two unique genomic islands are shared, and they both lack SXT elements. Furthermore, we confirm that seawater is the likely source of this outbreak, which suggests the necessity for future routine surveillance of South Korea's seashore.

PMID: 31475130 [PubMed]

Recurrent cholera epidemics in Africa: which way forward? A literature review.

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Recurrent cholera epidemics in Africa: which way forward? A literature review.

Infection. 2019 Jun;47(3):341-349

Authors: Ajayi A, Smith SI

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of cholera in Africa seem to be unrelenting which has been continuous and recurrent leading to high morbidity and mortality in some quarters.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this narrative review is to investigate and identify factors responsible for the recurrent outbreaks of cholera in Africa and response strategies that have been employed in curbing the problem, with the view of aggregating otherwise sparing data needed for policy formulation geared towards control and eradication of the disease.
METHODS: Search of literatures indexed in Google Scholar, PubMed and AJOL databases was carried out. Sixty-five eligible articles with reports on the risk factors that drive recurrent outbreaks, endemicity and response strategies were analyzed.
RESULTS: Our findings indicate that continuous and recurrent outbreaks of cholera in Africa are fueled by cross-border migration, environmental reservoirs, socioeconomic factors, climate change and political instability. The review also identified specific response strategies and modelling approaches that have helped in containing and reducing the impact of these outbreaks.
CONCLUSION: Paying attention and tackling these identified factors that are dependent and independent can help put an end to this running battle.

PMID: 30084058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cholera Outbreak due to Raw Seafood Consumption in South Korea, 2016.

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Cholera Outbreak due to Raw Seafood Consumption in South Korea, 2016.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 07;99(1):168-170

Authors: Kim JH, Lee J, Hong S, Lee S, Na HY, Jeong YI, Choi EJ, Kim J, Kawk HS, Cho E

Abstract
Three cases of cholera occurred in South Korea during a period of three weeks in August 2016. All the cases were associated with the consumption of raw seafood in southern coastal area of South Korea. Epidemiologic investigations were performed to track the spread of cholera, including persons in contact with the cholera patients, seafood, and seawater from the fish tank and marine environments. A microbiological investigation demonstrated that cholera isolated from the three patients and a seawater sample at the Korea Strait showed identical serotype (O1 Ogawa), biotype (El tor), and toxin (ctx-positive). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the three clinical strains are identical (100%) and shared 97% identity with the seawater sample.

PMID: 29785923 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Non-vaccine strategies for cholera prevention and control: India's preparedness for the global roadmap.

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Non-vaccine strategies for cholera prevention and control: India's preparedness for the global roadmap.

Vaccine. 2019 Aug 20;:

Authors: Das M, Singh H, Girish Kumar CP, John D, Panda S, Mehendale SM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Recently World Health Organization's Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC) has published a global roadmap for prevention and control of cholera. We review preparedness of existing governmental non-vaccine programs and strategies for cholera prevention and control in India. We also describe strengths and gaps in the context of implementation of the global roadmap.
METHODS: We reviewed published literature on non-vaccine based strategies for prevention and control of cholera in India and analyzed strengths and weaknesses of Government of India's major anti-cholera and ante-diarrhea initiatives under Integrated Disease Surveillance Program (IDSP), National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and other disease surveillance platforms.
RESULTS: The first strategy of the WHO global roadmap, namely, preparedness for early detection and outbreak containment, has been addressed by the IDSP. NRHM complements IDSP activities by focusing on sanitation, hygiene, nutrition, and safe drinking water. We identified the need to adopt stricter case definitions and data validation protocols. Multi-sectoral approach to prevent cholera occurrences and re-occurrences [the second suggested strategy in the global roadmap], highlights identification of hotspots and implementing strategies based on transmission dynamics. We recommend development of comprehensive models by integrating data sources beyond the national programs to eliminate cholera hotspots in India. Implementing the third proposed strategy in the global roadmap, coordinated technical support, resource mobilization, and partnerships at local and global levels, has major challenges in India due to structural issues related to health systems and health programs.
CONCLUSION: Even with a robust public health infrastructure, absence of a national cholera program might have resulted in lack of specific focus and concerted efforts for cholera prevention and control in India. A National Taskforce for Cholera Control must develop India-specific 'National Cholera Prevention and Response Road Map' with an appropriate administrative and financially viable framework for its implementation.

PMID: 31443992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Doubly Robust Estimation in Observational Studies with Partial Interference.

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Doubly Robust Estimation in Observational Studies with Partial Interference.

Stat (Int Stat Inst). 2019;8(1):

Authors: Liu L, Hudgens MG, Saul B, Clemens JD, Ali M, Emch ME

Abstract
Interference occurs when the treatment (or exposure) of one individual affects the outcomes of others. In some settings it may be reasonable to assume individuals can be partitioned into clusters such that there is no interference between individuals in different clusters, i.e., there is partial interference. In observational studies with partial interference, inverse probability weighted (IPW) estimators have been proposed of different possible treatment effects. However, the validity of IPW estimators depends on the propensity score being known or correctly modeled. Alternatively, one can estimate the treatment effect using an outcome regression model. In this paper, we propose doubly robust (DR) estimators which utilize both models and are consistent and asymptotically normal if either model, but not necessarily both, is correctly specified. Empirical results are presented to demonstrate the DR property of the proposed estimators, as well as the efficiency gain of DR over IPW estimators when both models are correctly specified. The different estimators are illustrated using data from a study examining the effects of cholera vaccination in Bangladesh.

PMID: 31440374 [PubMed]

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