Recent Cholera Publications on PubMed

Subscribe to Recent Cholera Publications on PubMed feed Recent Cholera Publications on PubMed
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=cholera epidemiology
Updated: 4 hours 57 min ago

Burden of dengue infection in India, 2017: a cross-sectional population based serosurvey.

June 16, 2019
Related Articles

Burden of dengue infection in India, 2017: a cross-sectional population based serosurvey.

Lancet Glob Health. 2019 Jun 11;:

Authors: Murhekar MV, Kamaraj P, Kumar MS, Khan SA, Allam RR, Barde P, Dwibedi B, Kanungo S, Mohan U, Mohanty SS, Roy S, Sagar V, Savargaonkar D, Tandale BV, Topno RK, Sapkal G, Kumar CPG, Sabarinathan R, Kumar VS, Bitragunta S, Grover GS, Lakshmi PVM, Mishra CM, Sadhukhan P, Sahoo PK, Singh SK, Yadav CP, Bhagat A, Srivastava R, Dinesh ER, Karunakaran T, Govindhasamy C, Rajasekar TD, Jeyakumar A, Suresh A, Augustine D, Kumar PA, Kumar R, Dutta S, Toteja GS, Gupta N, Mehendale SM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The burden of dengue virus (DENV) infection across geographical regions of India is poorly quantified. We estimated the age-specific seroprevalence, force of infection, and number of infections in India.
METHODS: We did a community-based survey in 240 clusters (118 rural, 122 urban), selected from 60 districts of 15 Indian states from five geographical regions. We enumerated each cluster, randomly selected (with an Andriod application developed specifically for the survey) 25 individuals from age groups of 5-8 years, 9-17 years, and 18-45 years, and sampled a minimum of 11 individuals from each age group (all the 25 randomly selected individuals in each age group were visited in their houses and individuals who consented for the survey were included in the study). Age was the only inclusion criterion; for the purpose of enumeration, individuals residing in the household for more than 6 months were included. Sera were tested centrally by a laboratory team of scientific and technical staff for IgG antibodies against the DENV with the use of indirect ELISA. We calculated age group specific seroprevalence and constructed catalytic models to estimate force of infection.
FINDINGS: From June 19, 2017, to April 12, 2018, we randomly selected 17 930 individuals from three age groups. Of these, blood samples were collected and tested for 12 300 individuals (5-8 years, n=4059; 9-17 years, n=4265; 18-45 years, n=3976). The overall seroprevalence of DENV infection in India was 48·7% (95% CI 43·5-54·0), increasing from 28·3% (21·5-36·2) among children aged 5-8 years to 41·0% (32·4-50·1) among children aged 9-17 years and 56·2% (49·0-63·1) among individuals aged between 18-45 years. The seroprevalence was high in the southern (76·9% [69·1-83·2]), western (62·3% [55·3-68·8]), and northern (60·3% [49·3-70·5]) regions. The estimated number of primary DENV infections with the constant force of infection model was 12 991 357 (12 825 128-13 130 258) and for the age-dependent force of infection model was 8 655 425 (7 243 630-9 545 052) among individuals aged 5-45 years from 30 Indian states in 2017.
INTERPRETATION: The burden of dengue infection in India was heterogeneous, with evidence of high transmission in northern, western, and southern regions. The survey findings will be useful in making informed decisions about introduction of upcoming dengue vaccines in India.
FUNDING: Indian Council of Medical Research.

PMID: 31201130 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus indiarrhoeal patients, fish and aquatic environments and their potential for inter-source transmission.

June 14, 2019

Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus indiarrhoeal patients, fish and aquatic environments and their potential for inter-source transmission.

Heliyon. 2019 May;5(5):e01743

Authors: Guin S, Saravanan M, Anjay, Chowdhury G, Pazhani GP, Ramamurthy T, Chandra Das S

Abstract
The role of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in causing diarrhoeal disease is well known. However, phenotypic and genetic traits of this pathogen isolated from diverse sources have not been investigated in detail. In this study, we have screened samples from diarrhoeal cases (2603), brackish water fish (301) and aquatic environments (115) and identified V. parahaemolyticus in 29 (1.1%), 171 (56.8%) and 43 (37.4%) samples, respectively. Incidence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticuswith virulence encoding thermostable-direct haemolysin gene (tdh) was detected mostly in fishes (19.3%) and waters (15.6%) than clinical samples (1.04%). The pandemic strain marker genes (toxRS and PGS-sequences) have been detected relatively more in water (6%) and fish (5%) samples than in clinical samples (0.7%). Majority of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates from clinical cases and fish samples (26.3%) belonged to classical pandemic serovars (O3:K6). In addition, several newly recognised pandemic serovars have also been identified. Pulsed field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed clonal relatedness (60-85%) of V. parahaemolyticus from different sources. The study observation revealed that the brackish water fishes and water bodies may act as a reservoir of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. Emergence of several new serovars of pandemic V. parahaemolyticussignifies the changing phenotypic characteristics of the pathogen.

PMID: 31193375 [PubMed]

Identification of widespread antibiotic exposure in cholera patients correlates with clinically relevant microbiota changes.

June 14, 2019

Identification of widespread antibiotic exposure in cholera patients correlates with clinically relevant microbiota changes.

J Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 13;:

Authors: Alexandrova L, Haque F, Rodriguez P, Marrazzo AC, Grembi JA, Ramachandran V, Hryckowian AJ, Adams CM, Siddique MSA, Khan AI, Qadri F, Andrews JR, Rahman M, Spormann AM, Schoolnik GK, Chien A, Nelson EJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: A first step to combating antimicrobial resistance in enteric pathogens is to establish an objective assessment of antibiotic exposure. Our goal was to develop and evaluate a liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method to determine antibiotic exposure in cholera patients.
METHODS: A priority list for targeted LC/MS was generated from medication vendor surveys in Bangladesh. A study of cholera and non-cholera patients was conducted to collect and analyze paired urine and stool samples.
RESULTS: Among 845 patients, 11% (n=90) were Vibrio cholerae positive; at least one antibiotic was detected in 86% and at least two in 52% of cholera stools. Among paired urine and stool (n=44), at least one antibiotic was detected in 98% and at least two in 84%, despite 55% self-reporting medication use. Compared to LC/MS, a low-cost antimicrobial detection bio-assay lacked sufficient negative predictive value (10%; 95% CI 6-16). Detection of guideline-recommended antibiotics in stool did (azithromycin; p=0.040) and did not (ciprofloxacin) correlate with V. cholerae suppression. A non-recommended antibiotic (metronidazole) was associated with decreases in anaerobes (Prevotella; p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest there may be no true negative control group when attempting to account for antibiotic exposure in settings like those in this study.

PMID: 31192364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Unexplored Opportunities: Use of Climate- and Weather-Driven Early Warning Systems to Reduce the Burden of Infectious Diseases.

June 14, 2019
Related Articles

Unexplored Opportunities: Use of Climate- and Weather-Driven Early Warning Systems to Reduce the Burden of Infectious Diseases.

Curr Environ Health Rep. 2018 12;5(4):430-438

Authors: Morin CW, Semenza JC, Trtanj JM, Glass GE, Boyer C, Ebi KL

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weather and climate influence multiple aspects of infectious disease ecology. Creating and applying early warning systems based on temperature, precipitation, and other environmental data can identify where and when outbreaks of climate-sensitive infectious diseases could occur and can be used by decision makers to allocate resources. Whether an outbreak actually occurs depends heavily on other social, political, and institutional factors.
RECENT FINDINGS: Improving the timing and confidence of seasonal climate forecasting, coupled with knowledge of exposure-response relationships, can identify prior conditions conducive to disease outbreaks weeks to months in advance of outbreaks. This information could then be used by public health professionals to improve surveillance in the most likely areas for threats. Early warning systems are well established for drought and famine. And while weather- and climate-driven early warning systems for certain diseases, such as dengue fever and cholera, are employed in some regions, this area of research is underdeveloped. Early warning systems based on temperature, precipitation, and other environmental data provide an opportunity for early detection leading to early action and response to potential pathogen threats, thereby reducing the burden of disease when compared with passive health indicator-based surveillance systems.

PMID: 30350265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Upsurge and spread of G3 rotaviruses in Eastern India (2014-2016): Full genome analyses reveals heterogeneity within Wa-like genomic constellation.

June 14, 2019
Related Articles

Upsurge and spread of G3 rotaviruses in Eastern India (2014-2016): Full genome analyses reveals heterogeneity within Wa-like genomic constellation.

Infect Genet Evol. 2018 09;63:158-174

Authors: Banerjee A, Lo M, Indwar P, Deb AK, Das S, Manna B, Dutta S, Bhadra UK, Bhattacharya M, Okamoto K, Chawla-Sarkar M

Abstract
Advent of new strains and shift in predominantly circulating genotypes are characteristics of group- A rotavirus (RVA), one of the major causes of childhood gastroenteritis. During diarrheal disease surveillance at Kolkata, India (2014-2016), a shift in circulating RVA strains from G1P[8] to G3P[8] was seen. Stool samples from children (n = 3048) with acute gastroenteritis were tested of which 38.7% were RVA positive. G1 was the predominant strain (65.3%) in 2014-2015 whereas in late 2015 and 2016, G3 became the preponderant strain (44.6%). In the past decade G3 strains were not observed in this region, we conducted whole genome sequencing of representative strains to gain insight into the phenomenon of emergence and genetic constellation of these circulating human G3 strains. The analyses revealed intergenogroup reassortment in G3P[4] strains (among Wa and DS-1-like genogroup) whereas G3P[8] strains were authentic Wa-like. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Kolkata G3 strains as polymorphic and thus they formed two sub-clusters due to antigenic differences in their VP7 protein. One of the sub-clusters had the wild-type threonine at 87 amino acid position while another sub-cluster had an isoleucine mutation. Presence of additional N-linked glycosylation site at amino acid 283 of VP7 glycoprotein suggests that the major neutralizing epitope on the VP7 (G3) of RotaTeq vaccine differs from the currently circulating G3 strains. The study is important as efficiency of rotavirus vaccine depends on the circulating heterogeneous genotype constellations. Continuous monitoring of circulating RVA strains in endemic settings like India is therefore important in pre- and post-vaccination period to monitor the emergence of new reassortant genotypes in addition to assessing vaccine efficacy.

PMID: 29842980 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Vibrio cholerae NO-O1/NO-O139 bacteremia in a cirrhotic patient. First case report in Peru and literatura review].

June 6, 2019
Related Articles

[Vibrio cholerae NO-O1/NO-O139 bacteremia in a cirrhotic patient. First case report in Peru and literatura review].

Rev Gastroenterol Peru. 2018 Jul-Sep;38(3):301-305

Authors: Gallardo-Cartagena JA, Chiappe-Gonzalez AJ, Astocondor-Salazar LM, Salazar-Mesones BN, Narcizo Susanibar JA, Cucho-Espinoza C, Huaroto-Valdivia LM, Ticona-Chávez ER

Abstract
Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae (NOVC) strains are an uncommon cause of gastroenteritis. However, they have been recently associated with severe extraintestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts. Among them, bacteremia in cirrhotic patients is noteworthy. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman with cirrhosis that developed septic shock, multiple organ failure and died four days after admission. Blood cultures yielded Gram-negative rods identified as Vibrio cholerae. Further serogrouping by slide agglutination and a negative PCR for ctxA gen confirmed the strain to be NOVC. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed sensitivity to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin; and resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report in Peru, described in the Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, of NOVC bacteremia.

PMID: 30540737 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Inconsistency in Diarrhea Measurements when Assessing Intervention Impact in a Non-Blinded Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

June 5, 2019
Related Articles

Inconsistency in Diarrhea Measurements when Assessing Intervention Impact in a Non-Blinded Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Jun 03;:

Authors: Najnin N, Leder K, Forbes A, Unicomb L, Qadri F, Ram PK, Winch PJ, Begum F, Biswas S, Parvin T, Yeasmin F, Cravioto A, Luby SP

Abstract
To explore the consistency in impact evaluation based on reported diarrhea, we compared diarrhea data collected through two different surveys and with observed diarrhea-associated hospitalization for children aged ≤ 5 years from a non-blinded cluster-randomized trial conducted over 2 years in urban Dhaka. We have previously reported that the interventions did not reduce diarrhea-associated hospitalization for children aged ≤ 5 years in this trial. We randomly allocated 90 geographic clusters comprising > 60,000 low-income households into three groups: cholera vaccine only, vaccine plus behavior change (cholera vaccine and handwashing plus drinking water chlorination promotion), and control. We calculated reported diarrhea prevalence within the last 2 days using data collected from two different survey methods. The "census" data were collected from each household every 6 months for updating household demographic information. The "monthly survey" data were collected every month from a subset of randomly selected study households for monitoring the uptake of behavior change interventions. We used binomial regression with a logarithmic link accounting for clustering to compare diarrhea prevalence across intervention and control groups separately for both census and monthly survey data. No intervention impact was detected in the census (vaccine only versus control: 2.32% versus 2.53%; P = 0.49; vaccine plus behavior change versus control: 2.44% versus 2.53%; P = 0.78) or in the vaccine only versus control in the monthly survey (3.39% versus 3.80%; P = 0.69). However, diarrhea prevalence was lower in the vaccine-plus-behavior-change group than control in the monthly survey (2.08% versus 3.80%; P = 0.02). Although the reasons for different observed treatment effects in the census and monthly survey data in this study are unclear, these findings emphasize the importance of assessing objective outcomes along with reported outcomes from non-blinded trials.

PMID: 31162005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Whole genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae directly from dried spotted filter paper.

May 31, 2019
Related Articles

Whole genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae directly from dried spotted filter paper.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 May 30;13(5):e0007330

Authors: Bénard AHM, Guenou E, Fookes M, Ateudjieu J, Kasambara W, Siever M, Rebaudet S, Boncy J, Adrien P, Piarroux R, Sack DA, Thomson N, Debes AK

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Global estimates for cholera annually approximate 4 million cases worldwide with 95,000 deaths. Recent outbreaks, including Haiti and Yemen, are reminders that cholera is still a global health concern. Cholera outbreaks can rapidly induce high death tolls by overwhelming the capacity of health facilities, especially in remote areas or areas of civil unrest. Recent studies demonstrated that stool specimens preserved on filter paper facilitate molecular analysis of Vibrio cholerae in resource limited settings. Specimens preserved in a rapid, low-cost, safe and sustainable manner for sequencing provides previously unavailable data about circulating cholera strains. This may ultimately provide new information to shape public policy response on cholera control and elimination.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Whole genome sequencing (WGS) recovered close to a complete sequence of the V. cholerae O1 genome with satisfactory genome coverage from stool specimens enriched in alkaline peptone water (APW) and V. cholerae culture isolates, both spotted on filter paper. The minimum concentration of V. cholerae DNA sufficient to produce quality genomic information was 0.02 ng/μL. The genomic data confirmed the presence or absence of genes of epidemiological interest, including cholera toxin and pilus loci. WGS identified a variety of diarrheal pathogens from APW-enriched specimen spotted filter paper, highlighting the potential for this technique to explore the gut microbiome, potentially identifying co-infections, which may impact the severity of disease. WGS demonstrated that these specimens fit within the current global cholera phylogenetic tree, identifying the strains as the 7th pandemic El Tor.
CONCLUSIONS: WGS results allowed for mapping of short reads from APW-enriched specimen and culture isolate spotted filter papers this provided valuable molecular epidemiological sequence information on V. cholerae strains from remote, low-resource settings. These results identified the presence of co-infecting pathogens while providing rare insight into the specific V. cholerae strains causing outbreaks in cholera-endemic areas.

PMID: 31145741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

What information and the extent of information research participants need in informed consent forms: a multi-country survey.

May 29, 2019
Related Articles

What information and the extent of information research participants need in informed consent forms: a multi-country survey.

BMC Med Ethics. 2018 09 15;19(1):79

Authors: Karbwang J, Koonrungsesomboon N, Torres CE, Jimenez EB, Kaur G, Mathur R, Sholikhah EN, Wanigatunge C, Wong CS, Yimtae K, Abdul Malek M, Ahamad Fouzi L, Ali A, Chan BZ, Chandratilake M, Chiew SC, Chin MYC, Gamage M, Gitek I, Hakimi M, Hussin N, Jamil MFA, Janarsan P, Julia M, Kanungo S, Karunanayake P, Kollanthavelu S, Kong KK, Kueh BL, Kulkarni R, Kumaran PP, Kumarasiri R, Lim WH, Lim XJ, Mahmud F, Mantaring JBV, Md Ali SM, Mohd Noor N, Muhunthan K, Nagandran E, Noor M, Ooi KH, Pradeepan JA, Sadewa AH, Samaranayake N, Sri Ranganathan S, Subasingha W, Subramaniam S, Sulaiman N, Tay JF, Teng LH, Tew MM, Tharavanij T, Tok PSK, Weeratna J, Wibawa T, Wickremasinghe R, Wongwai P, Yadav S, FERCAP Multi-Country Research Team

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The use of lengthy, detailed, and complex informed consent forms (ICFs) is of paramount concern in biomedical research as it may not truly promote the rights and interests of research participants. The extent of information in ICFs has been the subject of debates for decades; however, no clear guidance is given. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the perspectives of research participants about the type and extent of information they need when they are invited to participate in biomedical research.
METHODS: This multi-center, cross-sectional, descriptive survey was conducted at 54 study sites in seven Asia-Pacific countries. A modified Likert-scale questionnaire was used to determine the importance of each element in the ICF among research participants of a biomedical study, with an anchored rating scale from 1 (not important) to 5 (very important).
RESULTS: Of the 2484 questionnaires distributed, 2113 (85.1%) were returned. The majority of respondents considered most elements required in the ICF to be 'moderately important' to 'very important' for their decision making (mean score, ranging from 3.58 to 4.47). Major foreseeable risk, direct benefit, and common adverse effects of the intervention were considered to be of most concerned elements in the ICF (mean score = 4.47, 4.47, and 4.45, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Research participants would like to be informed of the ICF elements required by ethical guidelines and regulations; however, the importance of each element varied, e.g., risk and benefit associated with research participants were considered to be more important than the general nature or technical details of research. Using a participant-oriented approach by providing more details of the participant-interested elements while avoiding unnecessarily lengthy details of other less important elements would enhance the quality of the ICF.

PMID: 30219106 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A Game-Theoretic Model of Cholera with Optimal Personal Protection Strategies.

May 29, 2019
Related Articles

A Game-Theoretic Model of Cholera with Optimal Personal Protection Strategies.

Bull Math Biol. 2018 10;80(10):2580-2599

Authors: Kobe J, Pritchard N, Short Z, Erovenko IV, Rychtář J, Rowell JT

Abstract
Cholera is an acute gastro-intestinal infection that affects millions of people throughout the world each year, primarily but not exclusively in developing countries. Because of its public health ramifications, considerable mathematical attention has been paid to the disease. Here we consider one neglected aspect of combating cholera: personal participation in anti-cholera interventions. We construct a game-theoretic model of cholera in which individuals choose whether to participate in either vaccination or clean water consumption programs under assumed costs. We find that relying upon individual compliance significantly lowers the incidence of the disease as long as the cost of intervention is sufficiently low, but does not eliminate it. The relative costs of the measures determined whether a population preferentially adopts a single preventative measure or employs the measure with the strongest early adoption.

PMID: 30203140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Risk factors associated with the recent cholera outbreak in Yemen: a case-control study.

May 28, 2019
Related Articles

Risk factors associated with the recent cholera outbreak in Yemen: a case-control study.

Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019015

Authors: Dureab F, Jahn A, Krisam J, Dureab A, Zain O, Al-Awlaqi S, Müller O

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The cholera outbreak in Yemen has become the largest in the recent history of cholera records, having reached more than 1.4 million cases since it started in late 2016. This study aimed to identify risk factors for cholera in this outbreak.
METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in Aden in 2018 to investigate risk factors for cholera in this still-ongoing outbreak. In total, 59 cholera cases and 118 community controls were studied.
RESULTS: The following risk factors were associated with being a cholera case in the bivariate analysis: a history of travelling and having had visitors from outside Aden Province; eating outside the house; not washing fruit, vegetables, and khat (a local herbal stimulant) before consumption; using common-source water; and not using chlorine or soap in the household. In the multivariate analysis, not washing khat and the use of common-source water remained significant risk factors for being a cholera case.
CONCLUSIONS: Behavioural factors and unsafe water appear to be the major risk factors in the recent cholera outbreak in Yemen. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, hygiene practices for washing khat and vegetables and the use and accessibility of safe drinking water should be promoted at the community level.

PMID: 31010279 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Feasibility and costs of a targeted cholera vaccination campaign in Ethiopia.

May 28, 2019
Related Articles

Feasibility and costs of a targeted cholera vaccination campaign in Ethiopia.

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2018;14(10):2427-2433

Authors: Teshome S, Desai S, Kim JH, Belay D, Mogasale V

Abstract
Shanchol™, a WHO-prequalified oral cholera vaccine (OCV), has been used to control endemic cholera in Asia, as well as in emergencies and outbreaks elsewhere. The vaccine has not been used by public health systems in cholera-endemic settings of Africa although several outbreak response campaigns have been conducted. Here we present experiences from a mass vaccination campaign in a cholera-endemic setting of Ethiopia in which Shanchol™ was introduced through the public health system. The vaccination site was selected based on cholera cases reported in previous years. Social mobilization involved sensitization of community leaders, household visits, and mass distribution of banners, posters and leaflets. The vaccination was implemented after careful microplanning of logistics and cold chain, manpower, transportation, vaccine supply and supervision and monitoring of adverse events. Vaccine administration was recorded on individual vaccination cards. Vaccine delivery costs were collected and analyzed after vaccination. As there was no experience with Shanchol™ in Ethiopia, a bridging trial was conducted to demonstrate safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine in the local population prior to the mass vaccination. Oral cholera vaccination was conducted in two rounds of four days each in February 2015 and March 2015 in 10 selected villages of Shashemenae rural district of Ethiopia. A total of 62,161 people targeted. 47,137 people (76%) received the first dose, and 40,707 (65%) received two doses. The financial cost of the vaccination campaign was estimated at US $2·60 per dose or US $5·64 per fully immunized person. The cost of vaccine delivery excluding vaccine procurement was $0·68 per dose or $1·48 per fully immunized person. The study demonstrates that mass cholera vaccination administered through the public health system in Ethiopia is feasible, can be implemented through the existing health system at an affordable cost, and the vaccine is acceptable to the community. The lessons from this study are useful for deploying OCV in other African endemic settings through the public health system and may guide future immunization policy decisions.

PMID: 29648523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A review of potential factors contributing to epidemic cholera in Yemen.

May 24, 2019
Related Articles

A review of potential factors contributing to epidemic cholera in Yemen.

J Water Health. 2018 Oct;16(5):667-680

Authors: Al-Gheethi A, Noman E, Jeremiah David B, Mohamed R, Abdullah AH, Nagapan S, Hashim Mohd A

Abstract
The menace of cholera epidemic occurrence in Yemen was reported in early 2017. Recent reports revealed that an estimated 500,000 people are infected with cholera whereas 2,000 deaths have been reported in Yemen. Cholera is transmitted through contaminated water and food. Yemen is the least developed country among the Middle East countries in terms of wastewater and solid waste management. The population of Yemen is about 24.5 million and generates about 70-100 million m3 of sewage. An estimated 7% of the population has sewerage systems. It has been revealed that 31.2 million m3 of untreated sewage is used for irrigation purposes especially for vegetables and Khat trees. In addition, more than 70% of the population in Yemen has no potable water. They depend on water wells as a water source which are located close to sewage disposal sites. The present review focuses on the current status of water, wastewater as well as solid waste management in Yemen and their roles in the outbreak of cholera. Future prospects for waste management have been proposed.

PMID: 30285950 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environmental and Other Extrinsic Risk Factors Contributing to the Pathogenesis of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma (CTCL).

May 21, 2019
Related Articles

Environmental and Other Extrinsic Risk Factors Contributing to the Pathogenesis of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma (CTCL).

Front Oncol. 2019;9:300

Authors: Ghazawi FM, Alghazawi N, Le M, Netchiporouk E, Glassman SJ, Sasseville D, Litvinov IV

Abstract
The applications of disease cluster investigations in medicine have developed rather rapidly in recent decades. Analyzing the epidemiology of non-random aggregation of patients with a particular disease fostered identification of environmental and external exposures as disease triggers and promoters. Observation of patient clusters and their association with nearby exposures, such as Dr. John Snow's astute mapping analysis in the mid-1800's, which revealed proximity of cholera patients in London to a contaminated water pump infected with Vibrio cholerae, have paved the way for the field of epidemiology. This approach enabled the identification of triggers for many human diseases including infections and cancers. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) represent a group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that primarily affect the skin. The detailed pathogenesis by which CTCL develops remains largely unknown. Notably, non-random clustering of CTCL patients was reported in several areas worldwide and this rare malignancy was also described to affect multiple members of the same family. These observations indicate that external factors are possibly implicated in promoting CTCL lymphomagenesis. Here, we review the epidemiology of CTCL worldwide and the clinical characteristics of CTCL patients, as revealed by global epidemiological data. Further, we review the known risk factors including sex, age, race as well as environmental, infectious, iatrogenic and other exposures, that are implicated in CTCL lymphomagenesis and discuss conceivable mechanisms by which these factors may trigger this malignancy.

PMID: 31106143 [PubMed]

[Response capacity and challenges of the Cuban health system against communicable diseasesCapacidade de resposta e desafios do sistema de saúde cubano contra doenças transmissíveis].

May 17, 2019
Related Articles

[Response capacity and challenges of the Cuban health system against communicable diseasesCapacidade de resposta e desafios do sistema de saúde cubano contra doenças transmissíveis].

Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2018;42:e30

Authors: Corcho DV, Valle IR, Gutiérrez SB, Castillo RR, Ávila LJP, Berrio LA, Cabrera PL, Parra SP, García FAD

Abstract
This article presents distinctive and essential features in the transformations of the Cuban health system that have allowed the eradication and reduction of the incidence rates of some communicable diseases at levels lower than 0.1 per 100 000 inhabitants. The results obtained are a consequence of the importance given to the prevention and control, as well as to the risks and potential damages, of these diseases. The structure and functioning of the hygiene and epidemiology subsystem and its interrelations with the rest of the system, based on the different models of service provision, have been permanent integration scenarios for decision making. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, malaria, diphtheria, whooping cough, rubella, mumps, post-mumps meningitis, measles, yellow fever, cholera, severe forms of tuberculosis, human rabies transmitted by canines, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, vertical transmission of HIV, congenital syphilis and clinical forms such as neonatal tetanus and congenital rubella syndrome were eliminated. Some communicable diseases are analyzed in more detail and, in particular, the social response developed against tuberculosis, leprosy, AIDS and vector-borne diseases. However, the current health context presents challenges for the sustainability of the achievements made in the country. Assuring the maintenance of universal coverage with access of the Cuban population to health services will always be a principle of Cuban public health.

PMID: 31093059 [PubMed]

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139.

May 15, 2019
Related Articles

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139.

Mol Cell Probes. 2019 May 10;:

Authors: Izumiya H, Morita M, Arakawa E, Ngo TC, Nguyen HT, Nguyen DT, Ohnishi M

Abstract
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay was developed. It was designed for recognizing Vibrio cholerae O1/O139, where atpA, rfbN, and wfbR genes were adopted. The assay specifically detected the target with sensitivities of 5-67 copies per reaction in 1 h. The assay will aid rapid detection of the cholera bacterium.

PMID: 31082474 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Yemen needs a concrete plan-now.

May 11, 2019
Related Articles

Yemen needs a concrete plan-now.

Lancet Glob Health. 2019 01;7(1):e1

Authors: The Lancet Global Health

PMID: 30528294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A systematic review and meta-analysis on the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae in Iran.

May 10, 2019
Related Articles

A systematic review and meta-analysis on the epidemiology of antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae in Iran.

Ann Ig. 2019 May-Jun;31(3):279-290

Authors: Yousefi A, Vaez H, Sahebkar A, Khademi F

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cholera, an acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae), is an endemic disease and a major public health problem in Iran. Antibiotic therapy can decrease duration of the disease, transmission of infection and contamination of the environment. Considering different pattern of V. cholerae antibiotic resistance around the world, the aim of the current systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae in Iran.
METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using related keywords in the electronic national and international databases including SID, Irandoc, Iran Medex and Magiran as well as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and ISI web of knowledge. Up to July 31, 2018, 27 eligible papers were included in our meta-analysis based on the defined inclusion criteria.
RESULTS: V. cholerae O1 was the most prevalent strain isolated in Iran and exhibited a high resistance rate against numerous antibiotics including chloramphenicol (33.6%), oxytetracycline (40.2%), trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (86%), tetracycline (34.5%), furazolidone (69.8%), streptomycin (93.8%), polymyxin (80.7%), ampicillin (32.1%), nalidixic acid (88.9%), kanamycin (29%) and amoxicillin (30.5%).
CONCLUSIONS: According to the meta-analysis results, antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, azithromycin, cefixime and cefepime could be effective for the treatment of severe cases of cholera in Iran.

PMID: 31069372 [PubMed - in process]

Post-monsoon waterlogging-associated upsurge of cholera cases in and around Kolkata metropolis, 2015.

May 8, 2019
Related Articles

Post-monsoon waterlogging-associated upsurge of cholera cases in and around Kolkata metropolis, 2015.

Epidemiol Infect. 2019 Jan;147:e167

Authors: Mukhopadhyay AK, Deb AK, Chowdhury G, Debnath F, Samanta P, Saha RN, Manna B, Bhattacharya MK, Datta D, Okamoto K, Bhadra UK, Dutta S

Abstract
The Infectious Diseases and Beliaghata General Hospital, Kolkata, India witnessed a sudden increase in admissions of diarrhoea cases during the first 2 weeks of August 2015 following heavy rainfall. This prompted us to investigate the event. Cases were recruited through hospital-based surveillance along with the collection of socio-demographic characteristics and clinical profile using a structured questionnaire. Stool specimens were tested at bacteriological laboratory of the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED), Kolkata. Admission of 3003 diarrhoea cases, clearly indicated occurrence of outbreak in Kolkata municipal area as it was more than two standard deviation of the mean number (911; s.d. = 111) of diarrhoea admissions during the same period in previous 7 years. Out of 164 recruited cases, 25% were under-5 children. Organisms were isolated from 80 (49%) stool specimens. Vibrio cholerae O1 was isolated from 50 patients. Twenty-eight patients had this organism as the sole pathogen. Among 14 infants, five had cholera. All V. cholerae O1 isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid, followed by co-trimoxazole (96%), streptomycin (92%), but sensitive to fluroquinolones. We confirmed the occurrence of a cholera outbreak in Kolkata during August 2015 due to V. cholerae O1 infection, where infants were affected.

PMID: 31063116 [PubMed - in process]

Reduction in cholera deaths targeted for 2030.

May 8, 2019
Related Articles

Reduction in cholera deaths targeted for 2030.

Nat Microbiol. 2017 11;2(11):1457

Authors:

PMID: 29070822 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Pages